5 Years of Paris Agreement

At the 2011 UNITED NATIONS Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was established with the aim of negotiating a legal instrument for climate action from 2020 onwards. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015. [62] The Paris Agreement is the first universal and legally binding global climate agreement adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. One huge problem that is open in the run-up to Cop26 is financing. It has been crucial to include in the Paris Agreement developing countries that have borne the brunt of a problem for which they have done little. The key to this, Fabius said, is the promise of financial aid, and the French government must assure the poorest countries during the talks that $100 billion a year in financial aid to poor countries to reduce their emissions and manage the effects of the climate crisis. „Money, money, money,“ Fabius stressed, was at the center of the discussions. „If you don`t have that $100 billion [the talks will fail].“ As part of the 2015 Paris Agreement, countries agreed on a legally binding target to keep global temperature rise well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, with a target limit of 1.5°C. For this reason, the agreement also includes a ratchet mechanism that requires countries to submit new NDCs every five years to bring them closer to the Paris targets. The first deadline for new NDCs is December 31 of this year.

In Paris, rich and poor countries joined forces for the first time in a legally binding treaty in which they pledged to keep global warming well below 2°C, the scientifically recommended safe limit, with the aim of not exceeding 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. The two weeks of tense talks in the French capital were the culmination of 25 years of agonizing climate negotiations since governments were warned of the dangers of climate chaos in 1990. The failure, discord and blame of those decades were left aside as delegates from 196 countries embraced, cried and applauded in Paris. However, these promising measures have been offset by less encouraging developments over the past 5 years. President Donald Trump, for example, withdrew the United States from the Paris Agreement with few sanctions. (Biden plans to join him.) And many U.S. states that have rushed to launch a version of Trump`s abandoned U.S. targets at the state level are also lagging behind, according to a new analysis by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). Even taking into account the economic slowdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the researchers found that states are only likely to reduce their emissions by 18% from 2005 levels by 2025. In contrast, under former President Barack Obama, the United States promised cuts of between 26% and 28%. Meanwhile, Russia and Brazil, two other countries crucial to fighting climate pollution, have largely opposed the Paris Agreement.

In Brazil, under the government of President Jair Bolsonaro, deforestation in the Amazon has skyrocketed, releasing huge amounts of carbon stored in trees and underground. The renewal of the short-term commitments of the Paris Agreement will be crucial. In addition to the global and legally binding limit of 1.5°C or 2°C, governments presented in Paris non-binding national plans to reduce their emissions or curb the projected increase in their emissions in the case of small developing countries. However, the first set of these national plans – called Nationally Determined Contributions – in 2015 was inadequate and would result in catastrophic warming of 3°C. Five years after the adoption of the Paris Agreement, SEI looks at what the historic agreement has said on various climate policy issues, where we are now – and where we need to go. Therefore, both developed and developing countries are required to report on their mitigation efforts every two years, and all parties are subject to technical and peer review. [57] The signs of this decisive moment are good, says Laurent Fabius. Biden`s election in the US means she will agree with the EU and China to push for the full implementation of net-zero emissions. „We will have the conjunction of the planets that made the Paris Agreement possible,“ Fabius told the Guardian. „Civil society, politics and business have come together for the Paris Agreement.

We are now looking at the same conjunction of the planets with the US, the EU, China, Japan – if the big ones go in the right direction, there will be a very strong incentive for all countries to go in the right direction. After the Paris Agreement entered into force in 2016, INDCs were the first NDCs when a country ratified the agreement unless it decided to submit a new NDC at the same time. .